Somalilandsun- Somaliland and Somalia peace-building process has had some divergent experiences, actors and interventions. The reconciliation efforts in the peace-building initiatives in Somaliland, for instance, did not commence at the time Mohamed Siyad Barre’s regime was defeated. It was the agenda of the Somali National Movement (SNM) to reconcile the clans which have been engaged in a long period of fighting since 1988-1990. This is subsequently facilitated the restoration of peace and stability in Somaliland. This process has also promoted traditional authorities and political actors to come together at a time the situation was very critical and devastating in Somaliland. In contrary, United Somali Congress (USC) in Mogadishu Somalia had immediately faced the new cycle of violent conflict, destruction and retaliations among clans. In fact, these new bloody civil wars were blamed on the USC which were split into two wings one was leading by General Mohamed Farah Aided and other led by Ali Mahid Mohamed.
This has in the onset portrayed the scale of the problem in Somalia especially in Mogadishu. The international community response to the Somalia crisis contributed to the deterioration of violent conflict that sized many regions in Somalia in the post Siyad Barre period from 1991 onwards. This implies that external interventions in Somalia such as the deployment of peacekeeping forces of the African Union Mission to Somalia (AMISOM) did not bring any solution to the longstanding problems in Somalia. Therefore, this paper aims to discuss the distinction and modalities between the peace-building process in Somaliland and Somalia and will attempt to raise these questions: who are the actors involved or leading the initiative of peace -building in Somaliland and Somalia?; how were the peace-building interventions conducted by considering the historical, social, cultural, religious and political organizations in both regions?; and what lessons and experiences can be learned.?
The author Mohamed A. Mohamoud -Barawani is the Executive Director, Somaliland Non State Actors Forum (SONSAF) and currently a PhD Candidate, in Peace, Governance and Development from United Nations University for Peace, Costa Ric
There is no doubt that Somaliland’s peace-building and state- building has not only succeeded but greatly contributed to the peace, stability, security and regional economic integration across the greater Horn of Africa.
And, if the Horn of Africa is keen to be more stable and secure, reaching a two state solution of Somaliland and Somalia is inevitable and it is the responsibility of the African Union to undertake a holistic and coordinated fact- finding mission on the case of Somaliland and Somalia.
This argument is made by Mohamed A. Mohamoud -Barawani ,tthe Executive Director, Somaliland Non State Actors Forum (SONSAF) and currently a PhD Candidate, in Peace, Governance and Development from United Nations University for Peace, Costa Rica in a paper titled SOMALILAND AND SOMALIA PEACE- BUILDING PROCESS: ACTORS, INTERVENTIONS, AND EXPERIENCES published by the International Journal of Developmemt and Research.
Stating that Somalia’s case of restoring peace and stability will take a long time unless the local people feel that peace needs a collective responsibility, Barawani is not equivocal to the fact that fornthisnto happen, “They equally have to learn to devote their energy, resources and experiences towards peace-building initiatives. The political system that Somalia at present pursues is not consistent. It can trigger new political conflict which is likely to cause another civil war in Somalia, since the notion of federalism is not clearly defined. Competing clans arguing over the demarcation of federal states territory may locally distort the fragile peace and stability of Somalia. Somaliland’s pathway to peacemaking is an example worth emulating.