Somalia: Drought Emergency Plan of Action Operation update n° 4 (MDRSO005)

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REPORT from International Federation of Red Cross And Red Crescent Societies

Prolonged drought pushes Somalis to the brink/UNICEF photo

Summary of major revisions made to emergency plan of action:
This Emergency Appeal seeks 1,291,576.00 Swiss francs in cash, kind or services to support the Somali Red Crescent Society assist 78,900 beneficiaries (1365 HH). Following the needs on the ground, the Emergency Appeal seeks an additional 6 months to be able to achieve its goal. The new end date is 21st June, 2017. A DREF loan of 129,394 Swiss francs was processed at the beginning of the APPEAL to support the start-up activities by SRCS.
A. Situation analysis

Description of the disaster
Over the past 2 years, there have been inconsistent levels of rainfall across parts of Somalia. The Food Security and Nutrition Analysis Somalia (FSNAU) post-Deyr (short rains) 2014 Food Security and Nutrition Outlook (February – June 2015) indicated that “in the Northwest agro pastoral areas dependent on Gu/Karan rainfall for crop cultivation, these areas received below-average Gu rains, which affected crop development. However, this was partly compensated by average Karan rains received in August and September 2014 in Woqooyi Galbeed and Awdal Regions, which improved crop yield.” Similarly, the August 2015 Technical Release of FSNAUFEWS NET on post-Gu (long rains) indicated that in the Northwest Agro pastoral livelihood zone, poor rainfall contributed to low production prospects, with the 2015 Gu-Karan cereal harvest (October-November) estimated at only 37 percent of the 5-year average for 2010-2014. In the nearby Guban Pastoral livelihood zone, drought conditions have contributed to a severe water shortage and unusual livestock deaths.
In September 2015, there were early indications of possible food insecurity in the Somaliland territory. The Somaliland government authorities in collaboration with the United Nations Food & Agriculture Organization (FAO) have carried out an assessment (from September – December 2015), and on 5 February 2016, an alert was issued to indicate the worsening drought situation – this was also followed by an alert by the Puntland government authorities to the same effect. A state of drought was also declared in several of Puntland’s regions on the 5th February 2016, due to severe drought affecting parts of Somalia. The Puntland Government stated the drought is a severe crisis that is affecting hundreds of thousands of people across Puntland. Livestock have perished and so many people now stand on the brink of starvation. Several Regions in Puntland and Somaliland including Bari, Karkaar, Sanaag and Sool had been hit with extensive drought that was carried over from 2015 into 2016. The numbers of food insecure populations have increased markedly following successive bouts of drought because of the combined effects of El-Nino and La-Nino. There is severe water shortages and lack of pasture in all affected areas with the availability of water reportedly classified to be quasi-zero in most of the villages. Both Puntland and Somaliland Governments issued an Appeal to agencies and donors stating that there is a need to act immediately and mobilize swiftly to support these vulnerable people who have been suffering for months. Somalia is a country prone to recurrent droughts due to irregular rainfall pattern and effects of climate change. In both Puntland and Somaliland territories, the population mostly depend on agro pastoralism and livestock, which have been affected by the drought, reducing access to food and impacting on their nutritional/health status. The farming situation has since deteriorated due to the lack of water rains that helps in cultivation. Water sources of these communities are shallow wells which most of them are damaged and need rehabilitation. There are no nearby rivers and boreholes. The “Drought Joint Rapid Assessment” conducted from 8 – 13 February 2016, identified the challenges and needs of the drought affected population. The challenges are as follows:
• Food insecurity
• Disease outbreaks (Diarrhea, Malnutrition, LRTI and Pneumonia)
• Low coverage of Health Services and limited drug supply
• Water shortages – as well as limited access to clean and safe water
• Deteriorating livestock situation – due to pasture and water crisis and disease outbreaks
The major coping strategies being implemented by the affected population include:
• Migration by head of household to look for work in the towns
• Reduction of meals by households
• Remittance from the diaspora and urban areas

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